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|Title: ||Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Newly Diagnosed HIV-1 Infected Nigerian Children|
|Authors: ||Ebonyi, Augustine O.|
Ejeliogu, Emeka U.
Agbaji, Oche O.
Shehu, Nathan Y.
Abah, Isaac O.
Sagay, Atiene S.
Ugoagwu, Placid O.
Okonkwo, Prosper I.
Idoko, John A.
Kanki, Phyllis J.
WHO HIV clinical stage
|Issue Date: ||2016|
|Series/Report no.: ||Vol. 6;No. 1; Pp 21-28|
|Abstract: ||Introduction Studies on the prevalence of and risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce and in Nigeria there is paucity of reported data. We determined the prevalence of and risk factors for pulmonary TB (PTB) in newly diagnosed (treatment-naïve) HIV-1 infected children at the pediatric HIV clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) in Nigeria.
Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 876 children, aged 2 months – 13 years, diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between July 2005 and December 2012, of which 286 were diagnosed with PTB at presentation after TB screening. The study site was the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN)-supported Pediatric HIV clinic at JUTH, Jos. A multivariate forward logistic regression modelling was used to identify risk factors for PTB-HIV co-infection.
Results The prevalence of PTB-HIV co-infection was 32% (286/876). Severe immunosuppression (SI) and World Health Organization (WHO) HIV clinical stage 3/4 were identified as independent risk factors for PTB-HIV co-infection in HIV infected children. The odds of PTB-HIV co-infection was increased two-fold in HIV-infected children with WHO clinical stage 3/4 compared to those with stage 1/2 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.76 [1.31-2.37], p<0.001) and 1.5-fold in children with SI compared to those without SI (AOR 1.52 [1.12-2.06], p=0.007).
Conclusion In our setting, the burden of PTB was high among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children, and late WHO HIV clinical stage and severe immunosuppression were associated with PTB-HIV co-infection. Therefore there is a clear need to improve strategies for early diagnosis of both HIV and PTB to optimize clinical outcomes.|
|ISSN: ||2248 – 2997|
2248 – 2997
|Appears in Collections:||Paediatrics|
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