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Title: Seroprevalence of Transfusion-Transmissible Viral Pathogens among Potential Blood Donors in Kaduna, North-Western, Nigeria
Authors: Joseph, Abigail Yok
Ugwuoke, Chidi
Banda, Jim Monday
Sheyin, Zakka
Buru, Ayuba Sunday
Keywords: Hbsag
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences
Series/Report no.: Vol.15;Iss.4: Pp 73-78
Abstract: Blood transfusion services are integral component of modern medical practices. It’s however marred with several challenges, ranging from the use of screening techniques that do not detect infectious agents during the window period to the burden of infectious agents among apparently healthy individual in the population. We therefore sought to determine the seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible viral pathogens among apparently healthy blood donors in Kaduna, North-Western, Nigeria. A total of two hundred and seventy three (273) blood donors at Barau Dikko Specialist Hospital (BDSH) Kaduna, Kaduna State, were recruited for the study between October and December, 2015. Antibodies to HIV, were detected from the sera samples using DETERMINE® HIV 1/2 (Abbott Japan Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), UNIGOLD® (Trinity Inc) and STAT-PAK® (Caldon Biotech, Inc.,Carlsbad,CA, USA). Antigen to Hepatitis B virus were detected with ACON® Hepatitis B test Kit (ACON Laboratories, Inc. San Diego, CA, USA) and IgG antibodies to HCV were detected using ACON® Hepatitis C test Kit (ACON Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA . Social demographic data and other relevant information were obtained using a proforma specially designed for this study. Data was analysed using SPSS version 21.0 (IBM, 2011) and Microsoft Excel. The overall seroprevalence of the transfusion transmissible viral pathogens was 25.0% (68/273). The seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, and HCV was 4.4%, 12.1% and 8.4% respectively. In addition, 2.9% of the donated units of blood had serological evidence of multiple infections, with Hepatitis B and C co-infection having the highest occurrence. Replacement blood donors constituted 58.6% of the entire blood donors. Commercial blood donors had the highest prevalence of HCV and HIV infection (20.8% and 8.3%) while replacement donors had the highest prevalence of Hepatitis B infection (13.8%). There was no significant statistical relationship between the prevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and the donors status (P>0.05). Results from this study show that approximately one in every four persons in the study population harbours at least one of the transfusion transmissible viral agents. This is a reflection of the occurrence of these diseases in the locality. It also provides evidence for government and health policy maker in this region and the country at large to renewed their commitment towards strengthening infection control measures and blood safety guidelines with emphasis on strict donor screening and voluntary system of blood donation.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/2410
ISSN: 2279-0853
Appears in Collections:Medical Laboratory Sciences

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